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Jacques Le Moyne Engravings

Special Collections Gallery

In   1562,  Jean   Ribault,  the   French " naval officer,navigator,and colonizer" discovered the St. Johns River and claimed the surrounding land for France. This claim brought about a struggle between imperial Spain and France for control and dominance of the New World. Two years later in 1564, Rene de Laudonniere, Ribault's second in command and a colonist, established the settlement at Fort Caroline, creating a foothold in Florida for France and setting a course for a confrontation with the Spanish in  St.  Augustine. With de Laudonniere on the 1564 expedition, was Jacques  Le  Moyne, an artist and the expedition's official mapmaker. During the course of his stay at the new French settlement, Le Moyne made several drawings and watercolors depicting in an imagina­ tive and romantic manner the life and culture of Florida  natives,  including the Timucua.

The French continued to strengthen their position around Fort Caroline, maintaining friendly relations with the local Indian tribes with some success and failure. In 1565 Pedro de Menendez established St. Augustine for the Spanish and set out to destroy the French presence in the New World. Fort Caroline was attacked by the Spanish, the fort was overwhelmed and Le Moyne was one of the few French who survived and escaped. His drawings of native life in the New World were later made into engravings and published in 1591 by Flemish engraver and publisher Theodor De Bry.

The Ansbacher Map Collection has a small collection of the Le Moyne/De Bry engravings located in the fourth-floor gallery in the Special Collections department.  The engravings have been assigned numbers starting with number 1 (closest to the entrance on the left as you enter) and ending with number 45 (on the right as you exit the gallery).

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Gallery

Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova

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Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova

 

The engraving depicts the title page from De Bry's 1591 book entitled Brevis Narratio. This book includes De Bry's engravings of Le Moyne's forty-two illustrations, a map of Florida and Le Moyne's historical narrative. (1591)

Floridae promontorium ad quod Galliappellunt Gallicum ab illis nuncupatum

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Floridae promontorium ad quod Galliappellunt Gallicum ab illis nuncupatum

 

The Promontory of Florida, at which the French touched; named by them the French Promontory (1591)

Sex alia flumina a` Gallis observata

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Sex alia flumina a` Gallis observata

Six other rivers discovered by the French.

They reach Port Royal

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They reach Port Royal

French expedition exploring Port Royal showing habitat, wildlife, and Native encampment.

The French left in Charlesfort suffer from a scarcity of provisions

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The French left in Charlesfort suffer from a scarcity of provisions

The French left in Fort Charles suffer from scarcity of provisions.

The Natives of Florida worship the column erected by the commander on his first voyage

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The Natives of Florida worship the column erected by the commander on his first voyage

Chief Athore with Rene´ Laudonnie`re, commander of the second French expedition to Florida, standing by column erected by Jean Ribaut during first expedition, showing Natives worshiping the column and many offerings placed before it.

Picture of Fort Carolina [Fort Caroline]

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Picture of Fort Carolina [Fort Caroline]

Bird's-eye view of French fort, Fort Caroline, at the mouth of the River of May (St. John's) in Florida.

Ceremonies performed by Saturioua before going on an expedition against the enemy

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Ceremonies performed by Saturioua before going on an expedition against the enemy

Chief in center surrounded by kneeling braves.

Outina, going at the head of his army against the enemy, consults a sorcerer on the event

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Outina, going at the head of his army against the enemy, consults a sorcerer on the event

Outina, going at the head of his army against the enemy, consults a sorcerer on the event

Outina, with the help of the French, gains a victory over his enemy Potanou

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	Outina, with the help of the French, gains a victory over his enemy Potanou

Battle between two tribes of Florida Natives showing French support for Chief Outina's tribe.

Order of march observed by Outina on a military expedition

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Order of march observed by Outina on a military expedition

Three chiefs leading armies.

How Outina's men treated the slain of the enemy

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How Outina's men treated the slain of the enemy

Natives mutilating corpses of slain enemies.

Trophies and ceremonies after a victory

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Trophies and ceremonies after a victory

Natives gathered at designated place to celebrate victory over their enemies, with Chief Holata Outina standing in foreground with French soldiers.

Employments of hermaphrodites

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Employments of hermaphrodites

Functions of the hermaphrodites.

The chief applied to by women whose husbands have died in war or by disease.

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The chief applied to by women whose husbands have died in war or by disease.

Petitions addressed to the King by the wives whose husbands have died.

 

Ceremonies of women mourning for their deceased husbands

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Ceremonies of women mourning for their deceased husbands

Six native women sowing seeds with shells in foreground.

Mode of treating the sick

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Mode of treating the sick

Two sick people on log beds; fire in the middle.

Mode of tilling and planting

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Mode of tilling and planting

Timucua men cultivating a field and Timucua women planting corn or beans.

Industry of the Floridians in depositing their crops in the public granary

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Industry of the Floridians in depositing their crops in the public granary

Native men and women in a dugout canoe transporting harvested crops to a granary.

Bringing in wild animals, fish, and other stores

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Bringing in wild animals, fish, and other stores

Native women carrying baskets of produce, fish and game.

Mode of drying fish, wild animals, and other provisions

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Mode of drying fish, wild animals, and other provisions

Native men cooking fish and game on a wooden frame over a fire.

Hunting deer

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Hunting deer

Native men wearing deerskins while hunting deer.

Killing crocodiles (probably alligators)

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Killing crocodiles (probably alligators)

Natives attack and kill alligators by ramming a pole down its throat, turning it over, beating it with clubs, and shooting it with arrows.

Floridians crossing over to an island to take their pleasure

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Floridians crossing over to an island to take their pleasure

Natives swimming.

Preparations for a feast

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Preparations for a feast

 

Preparations for a feast

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The French select a place for building a fort

French begin to construct fort at the mouth of the River of May (St. John's) in Florida.

 

Expugnatio civitatis

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Expugnatio civitatis

This 1591 De Bry engraving - Expugnatio civitatis - depicts the 1586 attack on St. Augustine, Florida by Sir Francis Drake. De Bry's engraving is based on earlier hand-colored map or view plan engraving by Baptista Boazio (1589).

The captain of the French raises a column bearing the arms of the king of France

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The captain of the French raises a column bearing the arms of the king of France

The French commander erects a column with the arms of the king of France.

Leaving the River of May, the French discover two other rivers

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Leaving the River of May, the French discover two other rivers

Leaving the River of May, the French discover two other rivers/engraving after a painting by Jacques le Moyne, from Theodore de Bry's Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae Provincia.

Attack on the Spanish Fort San Mateo

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Attack on the Spanish Fort San Mateo

 

The engraving, circa 1706-1708, by cartographer and publisher Pieter Vander Aa, depicts the attack on the Spanish Fort San Mateo in 1568 by the French and their Timucua allies, under the command of Dominique de Gourgues, to avenge the massacre of the French (Fort Caroline) in 1564.

Gallorum ad Maij flumen navigatio

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Gallorum ad Maij flumen navigatio

French expedition under Jean Ribaut enter the River of May (St. John's) in Florida.

Proceedings of the Floridians in deliberating on important affairs (A council of state)

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Proceedings of the Floridians in deliberating on important affairs (A council of state)

Indian elders meeting with white men looking on.

Construction of fortified towns among the Floridians

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Construction of fortified towns among the Floridians

A Native village with the chief's house in the center, surrounded by huts of other principal men, and fortified by a circular arrangement of tall palings that spiral to a narrow opening at the entrance.

How they set on fire an enemy's town.

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How they set on fire an enemy's town.

How they destroy the enemy's towns during the night

How sentinels are punished for sleeping at their posts

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How sentinels are punished for sleeping at their posts

Punishments inflicted on negligent sentinels

How they declare war

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How they declare war

Five native men with spears and village in background.

First-born children sacrificed to the chief with solemn ceremonies

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First-born children sacrificed to the chief with solemn ceremonies

First-born children sacrificed to the chief with solemn ceremonies

Solemnities at consecrating the skin of a stag to the sun

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Solemnities at consecrating the skin of a stag to the sun

Natives worshipping with French soldiers looking on.

The youth at their exercises.

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The youth at their exercises.

Native youths shooting arrows, throwing balls at target placed atop tall pole, and running races.

The display with which a queen elect is brought to the king.

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The display with which a queen elect is brought to the king.

Native men carrying the queen seated on a throne supported by a litter; trumpeters lead the procession which is followed by young women carrying baskets of fruit and by a contingent of bodyguards.

Solemnities at the reception of the queen by the king.

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Solemnities at the reception of the queen by the king.

Young women and men surround wooden platform on which are seated the king and queen.

Recreational walks of the King and Queen.

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Recreational walks of the King and Queen.

Recreational walks of the King and Queen.

Ceremonies (burial) at the death of a chief or of priests.

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Ceremonies (burial) at the death of a chief or of priests.

Mourners in circle around burial mound.

Mode of collecting gold in streams running from the Apalatcy Mountains

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Mode of collecting gold in streams running from the Apalatcy Mountains

Native men using hollow rods which they drive into the sandy bottom of streams to collect gold and other metals.

Murder of Pierre Gambré, a Frenchman

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Murder of Pierre Gambré, a Frenchman

Two natives in canoe with Frenchman.

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